Sugarcane

Egypt


Sugarcane

History:

 

The Arabs introduced the cultivation of sugarcane to Egypt in 641 AD. The sugar industry began 710 AD and Egyptians were the first to establish the refined sugar industry, in the ninth and tenth centuries. They used to export it to Europe, then this industry has deteriorated during the Mamluk's era until the year 1818 when Egypt was ruled by Ibrahim Pasha, who made this industry flourish once again from that time on, and finally in 1850, the first sugar factory was established in Menya Governorate.

 

            In the year 1868 and during the regime of Khediwi Ismail , The "Sinai"  group has established 16 factories for sugar along Upper Egypt Governorates starting by Beni-Sweif up till Mataana district near Luxor, Quena Governorate. These factories used to produce raw sugar , which was then refined at Marcilia and Triesta.

 

            Among these factories , the Sugar factory at Armant , close to Luxor city which production was commenced in the year 1869 and still in operation until now.

 

In the year 1881 , a sugar refinery (factory) was established at Hawamdia , Giza Governorate under the name "The Egyptian Refinery Company ", with a view to refining  the raw sugar necessary for local consumption , instead of sending it abroad to Europe for refining . It is worth mentioning  that , Belgiam has contributed party in the capital required for this project.

 

In the year 1892 a French joint company was formed under the name, "Upper Egypt Sugar Factory", which was responsible for the establishment of "Sheikh Fadl Factory" followed by "Nagaa Hamady Factory" in the year 1896.

 

In the year 1897 the said two companies i.e., (The Egyptian Refinery Company and Upper Egypt Sugar Factory) were amalgamated together and united in one company under the name "The General Egyptian Company for Sugar Factories and Refinery ".

 

In the year 1910, the establishment to the sugar factory at Kom-Ombo, Aswan has commenced . Then , and as a result of the economic developments prevailing in the country , a partial nationalization for sugar industry took place in the year 1956, and a new company entitled, " The Egyptian Company for Sugar and Distillation" was established , half of its capital was given as a contribution by the Government.

 

In the year 1961, the said company undergone a complete nationalization and became affiliated to the public sector.

 

In the year 1962, it was decided to establish " El-Nasr Company for Sugar and Paper Pulp Industry" in order to ease the burden borne by the production efficiency of  The Egyptian Company for Sugar and Distillation due to its huge size.

 

However, in 1967 , both companies were amalgamated i.e., (El-Nasr Company for Sugar and Paper Pulp Industry and The Egyptian Company for Sugar and Distillation with a view to concentrating  management and research in one association..)

 

Today, the four main sugar crops;

  • Sugarcane
  • Sugarbeet
  • Sweet sorghum
  • Stevia

were cultivated in Egypt. (2)

 

            Sugarcane is the main source for refined sugar and sole source for molasses industry in Egypt. In addition to consuming it fresh or crushing it into juice, the by-products from its refining are used as raw materials in the plywood and paper pulp industries. Molasses from sugarcane is used in production of ethyl alcohol, active yeast, citric and acetic acid, and in dextrane, replacement for plasma.

 

In Egypt , there are 8 Factories (Table,1)

 

 Table (1): Designed Capacity of Sugar Factories and Ton Cane Processed.

 

No

 

Governorate

 

Factory

Beginning of Operation

Complete designed capacity MillionTons cane

% Activated Capacity 2006

Sugar production 2006

 

2

 

Quena

Armant

1869

1.3

100.3

169.9

Nagaa-Hamadi

1896

1.7

93.3

184.3

Kuss

1968

1.6

95.7

169.9

Dishna

1977

1.0

91.01

100.6

1

Menya

Abu Qurkas

1904

0.70

64.2

52.5

3

Aswan

Kom-Ombo

1912

1.8

101.8

206

Idfu

1963

1.1

115.6

148.7

4

Suhag

Girga

1987

0.9

65.5

67.7

Total Sugar Cane

9.1

93.9

1073.2

 

(1)   http://teach1.cses.vt.edu/cses3444/3444lec24.html

(2)   Farouk Afifi (1988). Sugar crops and sugar production in Egypt and the world.  Prepared by the Central Council for Sugar Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation 70 pp.

 

                      Last update 1/6/2007

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Developing of production of sugar in Egypt from 1982-2008

Years

Sugarcane

Sgarbeet

Area Fad.

Sugar Prod. Ton

Sugar per Fad.

Yield Tones/Fad.

Area Fad.

Sugar Prod. Ton

Sugar per Fad.

Yield Tones/Fad.

1982

187,683

681,897

3.60

 

16,943

16,937

1.00

 

1985

192,033

748,668

3.90

 

39,864

80,764

2.03

 

1990

217,212

829,244

3.80

 

30,620

65,855

2.15

 

1995

251,448

1,004,057

4.00

45..942

47,352

127,467

2.96

 

1996

254,452

1,019,417

4.00

46.022

48,456

105,213

2.17

 

1997

244,860

995,961

4.06

46.530

61,111

135,296

2.21

 

1998

235,324

934,297

3.97

47.164

97,710

233,068

2.38

 

1999

231,643

925,117

4.00

49.244

129,556

317,470

2.45

 

2000

255,188

1,037,664

4.06

49.650

132,359

355,769

2.68

 

2001

265,537

1,009,035

3.80

49.248

148,392

396,913

2.70

 

2002

250,344

976,477

3.90

 

156,587

396,119

2.53

 

2003

250,574

938,381

3.74

49.531

125,817

346,913

2.75

 

2004

245,923

1,001,991

4.07

49.921

139,722

367,558

2.63

 

2005

242,510

1,048,327

4.32

50.400

167,843

97,745

2.67

 

2006

239,075

1,072,158

4.50

50.770

184,158

503,283

2.73

20.950

2007

245,667

1,075,328

4.40

50.956

246,825

682,614

2.76

21.956

2008

335,063

1,075,000

4.20

51.235

235,259

507,00

2.20

18.593

Prod. =Production         Fad. = Faddan (4200m2)

Developing of consume rate per person and self-sufficiency from 1972 to 2007

Year

Population *

Production of Sugar  ** (1)

Consume of sugar ** (2)

Gap

(1-2)**

Consume per capita Kg/year

% self-sufficiency

1972

30.18

593

501

--

16.6

118.36

1973

31.38

555

562

7

17.9

98.75

1974

32.58

545

730

185

22.4

74.66

1975

33.78

522

763

241

22.6

68.41

1976

34.98

600

811

211

23.2

73.98

1977

36.18

619

820

201

22.7

75.49

1978

39.8

593

889

296

22.3

66.70

1979

40.9

623

996

373

24.4

62.55

1980

42.1

618

1115

497

26.5

55.43

1981

43.5

615

1187

572

27.3

51.81

1982

44.7

699

1260

561

28.2

55.48

1983

45.9

719

1320

601

28.8

54.47

1984

47.1

716

1370

654

29.1

52.26

1985

48.3

830

1440

610

29.8

57.64

1986

49.5

881

1470

589

29.7

59.93

1987

50.7

926

1500

574

29.6

61.73

1988

51.9

891

1576

685

30.4

56.54

1989

53.1

871

1492

621

28.1

58.38

1990

54.3

895

1575

680

29.0

56.83

1991

55.5

982

1716

734

30.9

57.23

1992

56.7

991

1534

543

27.1

64.60

1993

57.9

1005

1505

500

26.0

66.78

1994

59.1

1099

1550

451

26.2

70.90

1995

60.3

1131

1586

455

26.3

71.31

1996

61.5

1124

1574

450

25.6

71.41

1997

62.7

1131

1570

439

25.0

72.04

1998

63.9

1167

1600

433

25.0

72.94

1999

64.3

1242

1678

436

26.1

74.02

2000

65.5

1393

1800

407

27.5

77.39

2001

66.9

1405

1806

401

27.0

77.80

2002

68.3

1372

2000

628

29.3

68.60

2003

69.5

1285

2100

815

30.2

61.19

2004

70.7

1369

2200

831

31.1

62.23

2005

73.7

1497

2432

935

33.0

61.55

2006

75.1

1575

2533

958

33.7

62.18

2007

76.5

1757

2600

843

34.0

67.58

2008

77.7

1,582

2640

1058

33.98

59.92

Rate of increase population is 2% per year

*= million       **= 1000 tons

Developing of production rate per factory from 1980 to 2007

Years

Sugarcane Factories

Abu Qurkas

Girga

Nagaa-Hamadi

Dishna

Kuss

Armant

Idfu

Kom-Ombo

Total

1980

66,525

--

139,292

41,224

83,385

94,425

78,520

114,950

618,321

1985

54,113

--

154,966

63,112

122,142

124,506

104,375

125,454

748,668

1990

64,428

41,567

148,608

88990

142,246

109,025

101,639

132,741

829,244

1995

78,807

80,233

172,832

108,088

149,206

129,853

117,066

167,972

1,004,057

2000

47,823

88,685

190,785

106,012

163,895

139,046

127,027

174,391

1,037,664

2002

72,492

90,852

165,999

110,573

129,628

126,056

110,573

170,304

976,477

2004

59,375

68,338

164,356

95,901

169,950

144,300

130,460

169,311

1,001,991

2006

52,455

67,734

184,274

100,598

169,926

145,486

148,684

203,001

1,072,158

2007

46,595

67,682

178,685

99,141

165,710

158,545

152,605

206,365

1,075,328

2008

51649

67,197

171,355

100,662

174,645

151,263

140,671

217,742

1,075,184

Sugarbeet Factories

Years

DSC

Daqahlia

ESIIC

El- Fayoum

Nubaryia

Total

 

 

1980

--

--

--

--

--

--

 

 

1985

80,764

--

--

--

--

80,764

 

 

1990

65,855

--

--

--

--

65,855

 

 

1995

127,467

--

--

--

--

127,467

 

 

2000

196,274

116,088

43,407

--

--

355,769

 

 

2002

229,573

138,845

16,566

11,135

--

396,119

 

 

2004

224,602

112,600

12,995

17,361

--

367,558

 

 

2006

262,716

129,073

24,434

87,060

--

503,283

 

 

2007

325,329

177,000

43,048

137,337

--

682,714

 

 

2008

237370

139,000

17,885

94,000

18,861

507,116

 

 

ESIIC= Egyptian Sugar & Integrated Industries Co

DSC = Delta Sugar Co

Developing of Sugarcane and sugarbeet Prices in Egypt from 1978-2008

Year

 

Sugarcane

Price of tones (L.E.)

Sugarbeet (L.E.)

Basic Price (L.E.)

Actual Price (L.E.)

1978

9.20

--

--

1979

10.00

--

--

1980

13.00

--

--

1981

16.00

--

--

1982

17.33

23

23.139

1983

18.20

23

24.884

1984

20.20

23

25.919

1985

24.20

23

29.209

1986

27.50

23

27.409

1987

30.50

23

28.157

1988

34.00

26.25

29.910

1989

38.00

30.5

34.890

1990

50.50

55

77.573

1991

58.00

55

68.590

1992

66.00

55

74.800

1993

72.50

55

67.968

1994

81.00

63

81.800

1995

90.00

63

80.100

1996

90.00

71

93.95

1997

95.00

77

100.81

1998

95.00

77

100.00

1999

95.00

77

100.62

2000

95.00

77

95.32

2001

95.00

77

89.25

2002

95.00

77

96.90

2003

105.00

87

108.00

2004

105.00

120

154.50

2005

130.00

120

153.45

2006

160.00

140

178.00

2007

160.00

140

187.51

2008

182.00

160

230.64

Sources :

-Central Council for Sugar Crops

-Egyptian Society of Sugar Technologists, Annual Conferences from till 2008

 

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